Carbon neutrality, or having a net zero carbon footprint, refers to achieving net zero carbon dioxide emissions by balancing carbon emissions with carbon removal (often through carbon offsetting) or simply eliminating carbon emissions altogether (the transition to a “post-carbon economy”). It is used in the context of carbon dioxide-releasing processes associated with transportation, energy production, agriculture and industrial processes. Carbon-neutral status can be achieved in two ways:
Balancing carbon dioxide emissions with carbon removal beyond natural processes, often through carbon offsetting, or the process of removing or sequestering carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to make up for emissions elsewhere. Some carbon-neutral fuels work in much the same way by being made from carbon dioxide themselves, either through natural or man-made processes, despite producing carbon emissions as well. Much more extreme forms of carbon dioxide removal may also be used.
Simply eliminating carbon emissions altogether (the concept of the “post-carbon economy”) through the use of renewable energy that does not produce carbon emissions at all (such as wind and solar power) and making changes to industrial and agricultural processes to eliminate carbon production. Carbon projects and emissions trading are often used to reduce carbon emissions, and carbon dioxide can even sometimes be prevented from entering the atmosphere entirely (such as by carbon scrubbing).
Bhutan is one of them who have achieved carbon neutrality.